Pop Art Konsum high und low Konzeptkunst

Konsumgut in der Kunstwelt als Druckversion (PDF mit Abb. u. Fn. 2.019 KB)

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Das Konsumgut in der Kunstwelt – Zur Para-Ökonomie der amerikanischen Pop Art

in: Shopping. 100 Jahre Kunst und Konsum, hrsg. von Max Hollein und Christoph Grunenberg, Katalog Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt/M., Ostfildern-Ruit 2002, S. 148-153.

Abschnitt I

In den 1960er Jahren schien sich die Kunst in offensiver Weise all dessen zu entledigen, was bislang als Teil ihres Begriffs angesehen werden konnte. Schönheit, Exklusivität, Individualität, Bedeutsamkeit, Kunstfertigkeit, Komplexität, Tiefe, Originalität waren mit einem Mal keine verbindlichen Kategorien mehr. Nicht die Verteidigung der künstlerischen Autonomie, die noch unmittelbar zuvor von der amerikanischen und europäischen Abstraktion hochgehalten wurde, sondern deren Preisgabe avancierte zum künstlerischen Programm. Die amerikanische Pop Art manifestierte die radikale Positionsverschiebung auf besonders augenfällige Weise. Wie die Kunst sich hier ihrem „Anderen“, dem Konsum und seinen banalen Hervorbringungen, anzunähern begann, kam einem schweren Tabubruch gleich. Beides schien ineinander zu fließen, nicht nur aufgrund der Themenwahl, sondern auch aufgrund der Fertigung in größeren Stückzahlen, wie es im Falle der so genannten Multiples geschah. Doch richtig „populär“, wie es der Name suggeriert, wurde die Pop Art gleichwohl nur bedingt. „Populär“ ist ihr ikonografischer Bezug auf die selbstverständlichen Phänomene der modernen Warenwelt, „unpopulär“ aber blieb an ihr, dass sie die selbstverständlichen Phänomene gegen ihre Selbstverständlichkeit thematisierte. Die Pop Art war keineswegs ein bloßer Spiegel der Wirklichkeit, sondern zwischen Ding und Abbild fand eine Übertragungs-Operation statt – oder, wie Roy Lichtenstein es formulierte, eine „signifikante Interaktion“. Darin wurde etwas sichtbar, was die Pop Art mit der zeitgleich entstehenden Konzeptkunst verband: Die Künstler begriffen sich nicht nur als Hersteller eines Artefakts, sondern befragten zugleich die kulturellen, institutionellen und diskursiven „Rahmungen“, in denen die Produktion und die Rezeption von Kunst stattfanden. So brachte die scheinbar größtmögliche Annäherung von Kunst- und Konsumgütern die alten Unterschiede zwischen Kunst und Nicht-Kunst – zwischen Schein und Sein, Ästhetischem und Funktionalem, „Oberflächlichem“ und „Tiefem“ – keineswegs zum Verschwinden, sondern ließ sie erneut und auf besonders brisante Weise aufbrechen. Ausgerechnet die Pop Art, die als „Entkunstung“ der Kunst erschien, trug aufgrund ihrer Reflexivität und Konzeptualität wesentlich dazu bei, dass die Kunst sich in einer Zeit des Umbruchs behaupten, ja sogar radikal erneuern konnte. Doch dies gelang nur durch einen radikalen Paradigmenwechsel. Arbeitete Cézanne, seinem berühmten Diktum nach, parallel zur Natur, so die Pop-Art-Künstler parallel zur zeitgenössischen Konsumkultur. Sie erkannten zugleich, dass die Auseinandersetzung damit nicht nur ein neues Themenspektrum, sondern vor allem eine entschiedene Neudefinition des künstlerischen Produzierens erforderte, die das traditionelle Handwerk transzendierte. Damit aber bewahrten sie eine für die Kunst wesentliche Voraussetzung, die Äquivalenz von Dargestelltem und Darstellungsweise, Inhalt und Form. Diese Äquivalenz manifestierte sich bei den Einzelnen in der Ausstellung vertretenen Protagonisten der Pop Art in einer spezifischen Weise, die nachfolgend schlaglichtartig beleuchtet wird.

Punkt Konsumgut in der Kunstwelt Abschnitt I
Pfeil Konsumgut in der Kunstwelt Abschnitt II
Abschnitt III
Abschnitt IV
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Konsumgut in der Kunstwelt als Druckversion (PDF mit Abb. u. Fn. 2.019 KB)

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