Performance Performer Theater Schauspieler Subjektivität

Struktur und Wirkung in der Performance-Kunst als Druckversion (PDF mit Fn. 11.2 MB)

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Struktur und Wirkung in der Performance-Kunst

in: Grenzen der Karthasis in den modernen Künsten. Transformationen des aristotelischen Modells seit Bernays, Nietzsche und Freud, hrsg. von Martin Vöhler und Dirck Linck, Berlin/New York 2009, S. 199-230.

Kapitel IIc: Performer versus Schauspieler

Das Agieren eines Theaterschauspielers wird durch dreierlei bestimmt: die individuelle Physis, die vorgegebene Rolle sowie die stilistischen Eigenarten der Inszenierung. Diese drei Ebenen lassen sich klar voneinander unterscheiden, gleichwohl besteht der Effekt einer gelingenden schauspielerischen Leistung darin, sie zu einer einzigen theatralen Geste zu verschmelzen. Dieses Schema kann auf Performances nicht übertragen werden. Den Erwerb eines Wissens, über das andere Menschen nicht verfügten, konnte Burden nur deshalb als Ziel seiner Aktionen bestimmen, weil er kein Schauspieler war. Was in Shoot oder Bed piece beständig auseinandertrat und wieder verschmolz, war der Künstler als Subjekt, als Medium und als Objekt der Aktion. Als Subjekt agierte Burden, wenn er das Stück konzipierte, zum Medium wurde er, wenn er seinen eigenen Körper wie ein Stück Material benutzte, und als Objekt erschien er, wenn er sein eigener Beobachtungsgegenstand war und die Folgen der Aktion, beispielsweise die Schußwunde, an ihm sichtbar wurden. Auf diese Weise eröffneten Performances die Möglichkeit, mit sich selbst zu ‚spielen‘. Der Performer spielte das Spiel und wurde zugleich von ihm gespielt. Das Ich zerteilte sich in verschiedene Rollen, Perspektiven und Kräfte, die mit- und gegeneinander agierten.

Dieses Ineinander- und Auseinandertreten der Subjekt-, Medien- und Objektaspekte des Künstlers radikalisierte eine Tendenz, die seit dem Beginn der Moderne in der bildenden Kunst zu beobachten war. Eines der Kennzeichen der künstlerischen Moderne bestand in der Rückwendung des Künstlers auf seine Selbst- und Weltwahrnehmung sowie auf die Eigenart der eingesetzten Darstellungsmedien. Dabei galt das Interesse immer stärker jener Dynamik, die entstand, wenn der Künstler sich zugleich als Subjekt, Medium und Objekt seines Tuns begriff. Dieses begann sich von den mimetischen oder repräsentierenden Funktionen zu lösen und wandelte sich zu einer Geste, in welcher Weltbeschreibung und Selbstbeschreibung ineinander aufgingen.

In den späten 1940er und 1950er Jahren, also in direkter zeitlicher Vorläuferschaft der Performance-Kunst, hatten Jackson Pollocks sogenannte ‚drip paintings‘ diese Neubestimmung des künstlerischen Tuns im Bereich der Malerei zu einem Höhepunkt geführt. Pollock schuf seine Gemälde, indem er die Farbe mit schweifenden Bewegungen von allen vier Seiten her auf eine am Boden liegende Leinwand tropfen ließ. Das Bild entstand nicht als Wiedergabe von etwas Außerbildlichem, sondern unmittelbar aus dem Werkprozeß selbst, als emergente Formwerdung des malerischen Aktes. Pollock war sowohl das auktoriale Künstler-Ich, das seine Bewegungen aufgrund von ästhetischen Erwägungen steuerte, als auch das Medium, durch das hindurch Kräfte wirkten, die dem Bewußtsein vorausgingen, das heißt in einem funktionalen Sinn unbewußt waren. „Ich arbeite von innen nach außen, wie die Natur“, lautete Pollocks entsprechende Selbstbeschreibung. Pollocks Malereiauffassung war Höhepunkt und Übergang zugleich. In ihr gipfelte ein bis in die Romantik zurückführendes malerisches Konzept, das den Prozeß höher wertete als das Produkt, und das in der Kunst vor allem den Selbstausdruck des schöpferischen Ichs suchte. Indem Pollocks ungegenständliche Linienknäuel jedoch eigentümlich anonym erschienen, zeigte sich das Künstler-Ich zugleich als ein unpersönliches Medium vorsubjektiver (‚Natur‘-)Kräfte.

Pollocks ganz aus dem Produktionsprozeß heraus konzipierte Malweise wurde zur entscheidenden Referenz für jene Aktionskünstler, die seit den späten 1950er Jahren praktizierten, was Lazlo Glozer den „Ausstieg aus dem Bild“ nennen sollte. Allan Kaprow, der Erfinder des sogenannten Happenings, begriff Pollocks „‚dance‘ of dripping“ als Zerstörung der Malerei, da an ihr nicht die Repräsentationsleistung, sondern der körperliche Vollzug entscheidend sei. Pollocks Weg weiterzugehen hieß für Kaprow, die Leinwand zu verlassen und direkt in der konkreten Raumzeit zu agieren, indem man nicht Bilder, sondern reine Ereignisse hervorbringe.

Angesichts dieses Spiels mit den Rollen des Ichs, das in so unterschiedlichen, jedoch zeitlich und kunsthistorisch zusammenhängenden Werkverfahren wie denjenigen Pollocks, Kaprows und der Performance-Kunst kulminierte, erscheinen die spezifischen Handlungen, die beispielsweise in Burdens Performances vollzogen wurden, in einem neuen Licht. Denn möglicherweise bilden das Angeschossenwerden oder das Liegen im Bett gar nicht den Inhalt von Burdens Performances, sondern lediglich das geeignete Mittel, das Spiel des Ichs mit sich selbst zu entfalten. Wenn diese Vermutung zutrifft, dann diente das Extreme der Handlungen in erster Linie dazu, die innere Spannung des Spiels zu erhöhen und dem Betrachter genügend nachdrücklich zu vermitteln. Das Schmerzhafte oder Öde der Aktionen vertiefte die befremdliche Spaltung des Künstlers in ein Subjekt, das einen Plan entwirft, und ein Objekt, das diesem Plan unterworfen wird und dessen Folgen zu tragen hat. Ein bestimmter Grad an Drastik war nötig, um die Dialektik von Selbstbestimmung und Zwang, Ausgeliefertsein und Kontrolle heraustreten zu lassen. Der Augenblick des Angeschossenwerdens bildete den ekstatischen Augenblick, in dem das Subjekt zugleich aus sich heraustrat und zu sich selbst kam. Er erzeugte den widersprüchlichen Effekt, daß das Bewusstsein der eigenen Subjektivität durch einen Akt der Unterwerfung erlangt wurde, so wie es in der doppelten Etymologie des Wortes angelegt ist: ‚subjectus‘ als ‚Untertan‘ und zugleich als ‚Substanz‘ und ‚Zugrundeliegendes‘ (als lateinische Übersetzung des griechischen ‚hypokeimenon‘). Burden verknotete diese beiden Bedeutungen von Subjektivität, indem er sich einem frei gewählten Zwang unterwarf. So vermute ich, daß jenes Wissen, das er seinen eigenen Worten gemäß durch seine Performances erlangte, genau diese spezifische Form von Selbsterfahrung war. Was demnach die Bedeutung der jeweils vollzogenen Handlungen betrifft, lässt sich folgern, daß sie – zumindest im Falle solcher einfach strukturierter Aktionen – keinen die performative Situation transzendierenden Sinn besaßen, sondern lediglich den immanenten Sinn, der daraus resultierte, daß sie vollzogen wurden.

Kapitel I: Eine Kunst in ihrer Zeit
Kapitel II: Performance als künstlerische Form
Kapitel IIa: Zwischen bildender Kunst und Theater
Kapitel IIb: Der Betrachterbezug von Performances
Punkt Performance Kapitel IIc: Performer versus Schauspieler
Pfeil Performance Kapitel IId: Das Ende einer Performance
Kapitel III: Katharsis und Kritik
Kapitel IV: Resümee
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Struktur und Wirkung in der Performance-Kunst als Druckversion (PDF mit Fn. 11.2 MB)

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