Bruce Nauman Spiel Closed Circuit Psychoanalyse

Die eigentliche Tätigkeit als Druckversion (PDF mit Abb. u. Fn. 869 KB)

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Die eigentliche Tätigkeit. Aktion und Erfahrung bei Bruce Nauman

in: Auf der Schwelle. Kunst, Risiken und Nebenwirkungen, hrsg. von Erika Fischer-Lichte, Robert Sollich, Sandra Umathum und Matthias Warstat, München 2006, S. 57-74.

Kapitel V: Das Spiel (mit) der Subjektivität

Naumans Arbeiten zeichnen sich durch den ‚double bind‘-Effekt aus, dass man als Betrachter zugleich adressiert und ausgestoßen wird. Das Naumansche ‚Spiel‘ scheint immer dann aufzugehen, wenn ein irritierender Rest übrig bleibt. Erstaunlicherweise aber ist die Erfahrung mangelnder Selbstbestätigung in der Begegnung mit dem Kunstwerk keineswegs nur frustrierend. Der verbleibende Rest verweist darauf, dass Nauman nicht darauf zielt, das Verstehen scheitern zu lassen (das wäre ein ‚restloses‘ Ergebnis), sondern ein nicht zu Ende zu bringendes Spiel zwischen einander ausschließenden Verstehensvollzügen zu eröffnen. Die konkrete psychophysische Erfahrung und das reflexiv zu gewinnende Wissen halten sich gegenseitig in Schach, so dass weder die negative Erfahrung (qua Misslingen, Spaltung, Ausgestoßensein) noch das positive Wissen (qua Aufdecken der ‚Maschinerie‘ der Installation oder qua Selbsterkenntnis) triumphieren. „Wenn man merkte“, so beschreibt Nauman diesen Effekt am Beispiel der Corridor Installation, „dass man auf dem Bildschirm war, empfand man das Weitergehen im Korridor, als würde man über eine Klippe treten oder in ein Loch hinein. […] Man wusste genau, wie das zustande kam, weil man das ganze Equipment und was es machte, sehen konnte. Aber jedes Mal, wenn man wieder in den Korridor hineinging, machte man dieselbe Erfahrung. Man konnte ihr nicht aus dem Wege gehen.“ Corridor Installation erzeugt eine unaufhebbare Spannung zwischen einem Sinn, der von der konkreten Arbeit ablösbar scheint – und den die Nauman-Interpreten je nachdem anthropologisch, politisch, moralisch oder aufklärerisch auffassen – und der Materialität, an die der Sinn zurückgebunden bleibt, wobei unter Materialität alle von Nauman eingesetzten Komponenten zu verstehen sind, also die Aufbauten und ihr Material, das Licht, die Closed-Circuit-Technik usw. Zum ‚Stil‘ der Arbeiten gehört, dass sie ihre materielle Seite nicht nur offen legen, sondern oft ein wenig gebastelt erscheinen. Nauman insistiert auf der Theatralität seiner Werke: Die Erfahrung, die wir machen, soll buchstäblich unter unseren Augen entstehen. So gleicht auch die Beziehung zwischen der spezifischen, unmittelbar ans Werk gebundenen Erfahrung und davon ablösbarem, generalisierbarem Sinn einer Closed-Circuit-Schleife, die lediglich immer wieder durchlaufen werden kann. Das Kunstwerk gibt uns allerdings die Chance, die Plötzlichkeit, Unverständlichkeit und Unbestimmtheit sozusagen gerahmt wahrzunehmen. Man wird von Naumans Räumen, ihrem Licht und/oder ihrem Ton, angezogen, tritt in sie ein, geht durch sie hindurch und verlässt sie schließlich wieder, das heißt, man kann Vor- und Rückschau halten auf eine räumlich und zeitlich eingegrenzte Situation. Nicht zuletzt deshalb kehrt Nauman das Gebastelte so deutlich hervor: Die Installationen sollen als modellhafte Welten, als Situationen des Als-ob kenntlich werden. Darin liegt ein entlastendes Moment, das deren Erfahrung von traumatischen Alltagserfahrungen abhebt und vielleicht als ästhetische Lust zu bezeichnen wäre. Zuweilen verführen sie auch zum Lachen, da der Durchgang durch die Korridore in die Erfahrung mündet, wie sich eine gespannte Erwartung gleichsam in nichts auflöst. Verlässt man Corridor Installation, fällt es entsprechend schwer, den Inhalt und die Bedeutung dieser Erfahrung zu bestimmen, das heißt, sie in eine verallgemeinerbare Erkenntnis über das Subjekt oder über die Welt umzumünzen. Vielmehr bleibt sie an die „unbarmherzige Spezifität“ der Erfahrung gebunden, auf die Nauman sein besonderes Augenmerk richtet. Obschon seine Kunst keinen Zweifel daran lässt, dass sie aufs Ganze geht, bleibt dieses Ganze – der versammelnde Sinn, die Totale der Wahrheit – in radikaler Weise offen. Statt dass wir die Arbeit begreifen könnten, verhält es sich umgekehrt. Man wird von der Arbeit ‚ergriffen‘, und die ‚Erkenntnis‘ ist in erster Linie physischer Natur: ein „Loch“, in das man tritt, eine „Klippe“, über die man stolpert. „Ich habe von Anfang an versucht“, sagt Nauman, „Kunst zu machen […], die sofort voll da war. Wie ein […] Schlag ins Genick. Man sieht den Schlag nicht kommen, er haut einen einfach um.“
Indem die Erfahrung von Corridor Installation die Verstehensvollzüge auseinander laufen lässt, offenbart sie das Prozessieren der Subjektivität selbst – sofern man Subjektivität als ein Medium versteht, das, um seine Vermittlungsleistung zu erbringen, die Spaltung gerade voraussetzt. Die Kunst, die Nauman als „die eigentliche Tätigkeit“ versteht, wäre also darin ‚eigentlich‘, dass sie die Kräfte und Vollzüge der Subjektivität, die dem Bewusstsein vorausgehen und damit in einem funktionalen Sinn unbewusst sind, Form gewinnen lässt. Wollte man Naumans Kunst im Sinne Umberto Ecos als Metapher für das Selbstverständnis der eigenen Epoche deuten, so wäre vielleicht am ehesten davon zu sprechen, sie stehe für die ernüchternde Erfahrung, dass die wachsende Offenheit unserer Lebenswelt nicht nur zu größerer Freiheit führt, sondern zugleich andere, nicht minder bestimmende symbolische Ordnungen ans Licht treten lässt. Im Falle Naumans sind dies Ordnungen, die im 20. Jahrhundert vor allem die Psychoanalyse aufzuhellen versuchte. Sie haben den kränkenden Zug, zugleich dominant und unbewusst zu sein, das heißt – in Freuds eigenen Worten -, „nur durch eine unvollständige und unzuverlässige Wahrnehmung dem Ich zugänglich und ihm unterworfen“ zu werden. Wer in Naumans Korridoren umhergeht, erscheint als jenes Ich, das nach Freuds Diktum nicht Herr im eigenen Haus ist. Diese Erfahrung lässt sich weder transzendieren noch in positives Wissen überführen; und worin der Sinn dieser Unbehaustheit besteht, bleibt ungewiss. In ebendieser Offenheit, in die wir entlassen werden, besteht das Risiko von Naumans Kunst.

Kapitel I: Aktivität und Passion
Kapitel II: Nauman und das „offene Kunstwerk“
Kapitel III: Vom Werk zur Performance
Kapitel IV: Von der Performance zur Installation
Punkt Bruce Nauman Kapitel V: Das Spiel (mit) der Subjektivität
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Die eigentliche Tätigkeit als Druckversion (PDF mit Abb. u. Fn. 869 KB)

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