Andy Warhol Bedeutung Werkanalyse

Thirty Are Better Than One als Druckversion (PDF mit Abb. u. Fn. 6.077 KB)

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Andy Warhol. Thirty Are Better Than One

Frankfurt/M. 1995 (Reihe Kunst-Monographien d. Insel-Verlags)

Einleitung

»Bei aller Kraßheit ist eine bezwingende Simplizität in seinen Bildern; sie sind wie plärrende alte Melodien, die einem nicht aus dem Kopf wollen.« (Allan Kaprow)

Manche künstlerischen Interventionen sind wichtiger als andere, konsequenter, durchdachter, folgenreicher. Während etliche Arbeiten der amerikanischen Pop Art nur den Zeitgeist der 60er Jahre spiegeln und mit dem Vergehen dieses sozialen und kulturellen Gefüges in Vergessenheit geraten, hat Warhols Werk eine steigende Bedeutung gewonnen. Es erscheint heute als eines der wichtigsten der Nachkriegszeit.
Die Frage nach Warhols Bedeutung ist nicht neu. Der Auftritt seiner Bilder Anfang der 60er Jahre brachte zunächst eine polemische Literatur hervor, die eindeutig Stellung bezog, sich in emphatische Zustimmung und strikte Ablehnung aufteilte. Dreißig Jahre sind die frühen (und vielleicht besten) Arbeiten nun alt, Warhol ist in den wichtigen Sammlungen moderner Kunst prominent vertreten, die amerikanisch-europäische Retrospektive nach seinem 1987 erfolgten Tod inszenierte ein ernsthaftes, gewichtiges Lebenswerk, und 1994 wurde in Pittsburgh ein ausschließlich ihm gewidmetes Museum eröffnet. Die Diskussion um Warhol ist entsprechend nüchterner, dafür aber seriöser und komplexer geworden. Ausführliche Biographien haben im Nachzeichnen der Herkunft, des Ausbildungsgangs, der erfolgreichen Zeit als Werbegrafiker und dem schließlichen Aufstieg zum internationalen Kunststar mehr als nur eine Fülle von Details zutage gefördert, sie haben zugleich ein Stück Sozialgeschichte der Kunst (und ihrer Rezeption) geschrieben. Die vertiefte Kenntnis von Einflüssen, Freundeskreis, Persönlichkeitsstruktur usw. erbrachte überdies manchen Hinweis auf die Entwicklung seiner formalen Sprache und die Hintergründe seiner Themenwahl. Parallel dazu ist versucht worden, das Phänomen Warhol im Zusammenhang der amerikanischen Kultur zu deuten, etwa als Reaktion auf zivilisatorische Veränderungen oder auf die damalige Dominanz des Abstrakten Expressionismus.
Die Untersuchung von Warhols Persönlichkeit sowie der gesellschaftlichen und künstlerischen Rahmenbedingungen nimmt in der Literatur weit mehr Raum ein als die Beschäftigung mit den Bildern selbst. Untersuchungen, die sich eingehender mit einem bestimmten Werk befassen, gibt es kaum. Dahinter steht die Überzeugung, die Bilder machten aufgrund der reproduktiven Herstellungsweise und der banalen Bildgegenstände eine herkömmliche, formal und thematisch argumentierende Analyse überflüssig – ja das Unterlaufen von traditionellen künstlerischen Kriterien wie Originalität, Einmaligkeit oder inhaltliche Tiefe sei gerade deren Absicht.
Der folgende Text geht hingegen davon aus, daß Warhols Bilder nicht nur ästhetisch analysierbar sind, sondern daß erst eine solche Analyse deren Eigenart wirklich hervortreten läßt. Warhols künstlerische Strategie ist mit den Stichworten »reproduktiv« bzw. »banal« nur unzureichend erfaßt. Hier bedarf es eines genaueren Hinsehens. Das geschieht nicht mit dem Ziel, Warhol zum Gegenstand einer formalistischen Lektüre zu machen. Er wäre dafür ein denkbar ungeeigneter Kandidat, allein schon, weil seine Kunst eine ausgeprägt konzeptuelle Seite hat. Vielmehr geht es darum, nach den Strukturen seines bildnerischen Vorgehens zu fragen, deren Elemente (z. B. die jeweiligen Bildthemen, den Siebdruck oder die Serialität) in einen Dialog zu bringen. Gibt es Gründe, weshalb Warhol ein Thema aufgreift, und wenn ja, welchen Aufschluß über das Bild vermögen sie zu geben? Bestehen Kriterien, nach denen Warhol die Photographien auswählt, die er den Bildern zugrundelegt? Warum arbeitet er ausschließlich mit dem Siebdruck sowie durchwegs seriell, d. h. in grundsätzlich unbegrenzten Bildfolgen? Worin liegt die Eigenart seiner Verwendung dieser bildnerischen Verfahren? Werden sie in stets gleicher Weise eingesetzt oder dem Thema entsprechend modifiziert – ja in welchem Bezug stehen Bildform und Bildthema überhaupt? Erst wenn solche konzeptionellen Gesichtspunkte hinreichend geklärt sind, wird eine Einschätzung jenseits der Schlagworte möglich sein, wovon die Bilder handeln, auf welche historischen und kulturellen Veränderungen sie reagieren, welche Deutung der Wirklichkeit sie leisten. Denn obwohl Warhols Arbeiten manche traditionelle Bestimmung der Kunst souverän mißachten -was die Bedingungen ihres Verstehens betrifft, stellen sie innerhalb der Kunst keine Ausnahme dar.
Beim Schreiben dieses Textes wurde mir manche Hilfe zuteil. Für wiederholte Gespräche, in denen viele Gedanken erst Kohärenz gewannen, und das geduldige Durchsehen des Manuskriptes danke ich Kolja Kohlhoff, Barbara V. Reibnitz und Andreas Cremonini.
Besonderer Dank gebührt auch meinen Eltern, Antoinette Lüthy und Herbert Lüthy. Ihre Kritik, aber auch ihre Ermutigung und Unterstützung haben das Entstehen dieses Bändchens begleitet und geprägt. Ihnen sei es gewidmet.

punkt Einleitung
Andy Warhol - thirty are better tahn one - Pfeil Kapitel I: Der Anlaß
Kapitel II: Die Vorläufer
Kapitel III: Die Einordnung
Kapitel IV: Die reproduzierte Mona Lisa
Kapitel V: Pictorial Design
Kapitel VI: Das Dilemma des Malens
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Thirty Are Better Than One als Druckversion (PDF mit Abb. u. Fn. 6.077 KB)

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