The American Supermarket Campbell's Soup can Christo Store Front

Konsumgut in der Kunstwelt als Druckversion (PDF mit Abb. u. Fn. 2.019 KB)

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Das Konsumgut in der Kunstwelt – Zur Para-Ökonomie der amerikanischen Pop Art

in: Shopping. 100 Jahre Kunst und Konsum, hrsg. von Max Hollein und Christoph Grunenberg, Katalog Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt/M., Ostfildern-Ruit 2002, S. 148-153.

Abschnitt III

Zusammen mit anderen Künstlern beteiligte sich Oldenburg 1964 an dem New Yorker Galerieprojekt The American Supermarket. Ähnlich wie sein Store basierte es auf der Idee, die irritierende Nähe zwischen Kunst und Ware auch auf den Präsentations- und Verkaufskontext zu übertragen, zielte gegenüber seiner „Grotte“ allerdings auf den kühlen, hygienischen „Look“ eines modernen Filialgeschäfts. Doch auch hier betraf die Übertragung den Raum selbst, der nun als ganzer zwischen Kunst und Nicht-Kunst zu oszillieren begann. Man betrat ihn durch ein von Richard Artschwager gebautes Drehkreuz und konnte aus Kühltruhen und Regalen die „Waren“ verschiedener „Produzenten“ aussuchen. Im Angebot waren Tom Wesselmanns überdimensioniertes Truthahn-Relief aus Plastik und derselbe Gegenstand als Bild von Roy Lichtenstein oder Roberts Watts‘ Chromstahl-Eier, Wachstomaten und Gipspumpernickel. Warhol nutzte die Situation für seine möglicherweise nicht beste, im Lichte des von der Pop Art inszenierten und problematisierten Grenzverlaufs zwischen Kunst und Nicht-Kunst aber gewiss einschlägigste Arbeit. Unter einem Diptychon in Acryl zweier Campbell’s-Dosen war ein Stapel mit originalen Suppendosen aufgebaut, die, signiert und damit zu Kunst, zu „Warhols“ erklärt, ein Vielfaches des normalen Preises kosteten. Wer sich für den Kauf einer solchen Dose entschied, musste – überspitzt gesagt – in Konzeptkunst geschult sein und die Nagelprobe von Duchamps Ready-mades bereits bestanden haben. Warhol spaltete die Kunstproduktion auf in die Fremdherstellung eines nicht-künstlerischen Objekts, das er nachfolgend, ohne es zu verändern, in ein Kunstwerk transformierte. Indem das Signieren die Suppendose defunktionalisierte und indem umgekehrt der Genuss der Suppe „Kunstzerstörung“ bedeutet hätte, wurde deutlich, dass Warenproduktion und Kunstproduktion sich gegenseitig aufhoben. Warhols Transformation betraf also weniger das Ding als vielmehr das Denken – über Kunst, Institutionen, Autorschaft usw. Gerade die äußerliche Ununterscheidbarkeit von Kunst und Nicht-Kunst ließ die Differenzen zwischen Kunst-Dingen und Waren-Dingen in aller Unversöhnlichkeit aufbrechen.
Verwischte der American Supermarket die Grenze von Kunst- und Warendistribution auf heiter-spielerische Weise, erzeugten Christos im selben Jahr und ebenfalls in New York erstmals gezeigten Store Fronts eine andere, „dunklere“ Form funktionaler Subversion: ein abruptes Anhalten des Warenverkehrs. Die ersten, noch hölzernen Store Fronts entstanden aus Fundstücken, die Christo auf Abrissgrundstücken der Lower East Side gefunden hatte, wo die alten kleinteiligen Läden rationelleren und rentableren Verkaufsstrukturen zu weichen hatten. Die Neuzusammensetzung der Trümmer zu Store Fronts in Galerieräumen führte zu einer komplexen räumlich-funktionalen De- und Rekontextualisierung. Das Paradox der Darbietung eines architektonischen Äußeren in einem Innenraum wurde dadurch zugespitzt, dass das Innere dieses dargebotenen Äußeren zugehängt war – wobei sich die Situation noch verkomplizierte, da es sich ja lediglich um Fassaden handelte und das Innere gar nicht existierte. Verhängt wurde also nicht etwas, sondern nichts, und so handelte es sich auch weniger um ein „Abschirmen als Sichtbarmachen“, sondern um das Inszenieren der Nahtstelle zwischen dem Vorhandenen und dem Fehlenden. Das Zuhängen „zeigt“ in erster Linie das notwendige Unsichtbarbleiben der Auslagen längst verschwundener Schaufenster. Zumindest Christos Frühwerk – das den Kontext der Pop Art entschieden überschreitet, ihm womöglich gar nicht angehört – hat den „tragischen“, an den Surrealismus erinnernden Zug, das Verbergen und Zugrabetragen der Dinge und das Begehren zu Sehen, Tod und Eros, zu überkreuzen.

Abschnitt I
Abschnitt II
Punkt Konsumgut in der Kunstwelt Abschnitt III
Pfeil Konsumgut in der Kunstwelt Abschnitt IV
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Konsumgut in der Kunstwelt als Druckversion (PDF mit Abb. u. Fn. 2.019 KB)

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