Wittgenstein Kunstwerk Aspekt Erfahrung Interpretation

Das Medium der ästhetischen Erfahrung als Druckversion (PDF mit Abb. u. Fn. 1.171 KB)

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Das Medium der ästhetischen Erfahrung
Wittgensteins Aspektbegriff, exemplifiziert an Pollocks Malerei

in: Imaginäre Medialität – Immaterielle Medien, hrsg. von Gertrud Koch, Kirsten Maar und Fiona McGovern, München 2012, S. 125-142.

Kapitel V: Erfahrung und Interpretation

Wittgenstein betrachtet Kunstwerke als Angebote und Versprechungen, aber auch als Forderungen im Hinblick auf unsere Wahrnehmung. Sie sind keine vom Betrachter abgetrennten Entitäten, sondern suchen die Beziehung zu ihm. Ihre Gestalt erhalten sie im Zusammenspiel zwischen ihrer sinnlichen Beschaffenheit, die sie ihm darbieten, und der Art und Weise, wie sie von ihm gesehen werden. Wer aufgrund von Übung, Wissen und ästhetischer Sensibilität jene Erfahrung des „Passens“ macht, die mit dem Aufleuchten beziehungsweise dem Bemerken des Aspekts einhergeht, macht die Erfahrung, dass zwischen Subjekt und Objekt ein Zusammenhang gestiftet wird, der beide übergreift. Damit wird der Aspektbegriff zur Antwort auf die erfahrungsästhetische Frage, in welchem Verhältnis der künstlerische Gegenstand und die Wahrnehmung des Betrachters stehen – zu einer Antwort, die dieses Verhältnis als produktives Zusammenspiel beider bestimmt. Wittgensteins Ausführungen – aber genauso auch Kambartels Pollock-Deutung, die ich zur Veranschaulichung heranzog – machen deutlich, dass der im Wahrnehmungsgegenstand aufleuchtende Aspekt das Medium der ästhetischen Erfahrung ist, insofern als er dasjenige ist, was Subjekt und Objekt der ästhetischen Erfahrung miteinander vermittelt. Er ist wie ein immaterielles „Bild“, das im Zusammenspiel von Gegenstand und individueller Wahrnehmung entsteht und weder auf Merkmale des Gegenstands noch auf die Subjektivität einer bestimmten Auffassungsweise reduziert werden kann. Der Aspekt ist eine Relation, und Wittgenstein zufolge eine Relation, die „passt“.
Von Negativitätsästhetiken, die die Inkommensurabilität zwischen dem ästhetischen Objekt und der Auffassung des Subjekts betonen, hebt sich Wittgensteins Erläuterung der Kunsterfahrung mit ihrem Zentralbegriff des „Passens“ – das heißt des Kommensurablen – deutlich ab. Negativ an der ästhetischen Erfahrung eines Kunstwerks, so wie Wittgenstein sie bestimmt, ist die wechselseitige Unverträglichkeit der Aspekte, die zu einem nicht stillzustellenden Fluktuieren des Objekts und seiner Wahrnehmung führt. Negativ ist des Weiteren, dass die Kriterien des Passens begrifflich unscharf, ja „dunkel“ bleiben, so dass man sich mit mehr oder minder treffenden Metaphern wie derjenigen einer musikalischen „Antwort“ oder aber mit Gesten, die das Sagen durch ein Zeigen ersetzen, behelfen muss. Positiv an Wittgensteins Fassung ästhetischer Erfahrung ist hingegen die gelingende Vermittlung von Subjekt und Objekt der ästhetischen Erfahrung im Augenblick des Aufleuchtens des Aspekts, und positiv ist die bei Wittgenstein stets vorausgesetzte Möglichkeit, die divergierenden Aspekte in einem übergeordneten Verstehen zu integrieren, weswegen er sich nicht scheut, richtige von falschen Auffassungen des künstlerischen Wahrnehmungsgegenstands zu unterscheiden.
Wittgensteins Ausführungen machen überdies klar, dass wir an jedem Kunstwerk nicht nur andere Erfahrungen machen, sondern dass dieses je Andere sowohl für die Erfahrung als auch für das Verstehen des Kunstwerks prägend ist. Denn auch wenn Wittgenstein das Phänomen, dass ein Kunstwerk seinen Aspekt wechseln kann, als für die Kunsterfahrung wesentlich bestimmt, ist der Aspektwechsel keineswegs schon der eigentliche Gehalt der ästhetischen Erfahrung, sondern lediglich der Ausgangspunkt eines komplexen Verstehensprozesses, der die unterschiedlichen Aspekte, die im Kunstwerk aufleuchten, aufeinander zu beziehen und in ihrem Verhältnis zueinander zu bestimmen hat. Dabei sind die ins Spiel kommenden Aspekte – und damit auch der Wechsel zwischen ihnen – für jedes Kunstwerk spezifisch. Die Erfahrung, dass ein bestimmtes Lineament sowohl iterativ als auch kontingent, sowohl eine Wand als auch ein unbegrenzter Tiefenraum, sowohl eine Expression eines Subjekts als auch eine Darstellung von Naturkräften sein kann, lässt sich so nur an Pollocks Gemälden, ja mehr noch, in dieser Weise nur an Number 32 machen.
Indem die Kunsterfahrung für Wittgenstein nicht nur bestimmte Vermögen im Subjekt erschließt, sondern ausdrücklich auf ein je besonderes Kunstwerk bezogen ist, das in dieser Erfahrung in seiner Besonderheit erschlossen wird, wird deutlich, dass die Erfahrung des Kunstwerks bereits in dessen Interpretation hinüberspielt. Der Aspekt ist, so Wittgenstein, ein Erfahrungsbegriff. Er ist zugleich ein Begriff kunstwissenschaftlicher Hermeneutik.

Einleitung
Kapitel I: Pollock – nach Kambartel
Kapitel II: Wittgensteins Aspektbegriff
Kapitel III: Aspektwechsel und Kunst
Kapitel IV: „Passen“
Punkt Manet Velazquez Kapitel V: Erfahrung und Interpretation
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Das Medium der ästhetischen Erfahrung als Druckversion (PDF mit Abb. u. Fn. 1.171 KB)

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