Rosalind Krauss Expanded Field Skulptur Postmoderne

Expanded Field / Rosalind Krauss als Druckversion (PDF mit Fn. 255 KB)

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Expanded Field / Rosalind Krauss

in: skulptur projekte münster 07, Ausstellungskatalog Westfälisches Landesmuseum Münster, hrsg. von Brigitte Franzen, Kasper König und Carina Plath, Köln 2007, S. 356-357.
Die im 20. Jahrhundert sich ereignenden Brüche in der Gattungsgeschichte der Skulptur stellen die Frage nach der inneren Kohärenz der Gattung, ja, nach dem Sinn, den Begriff der ‚Skulptur’ nach wie vor zu verwenden. Rosalind Krauss reagierte auf diese Problematik in zwei aufeinander folgenden Texten in sehr unterschiedlicher Weise. In ihrer einflussreichen Monografie Passages in Modern Sculpture (1977) entfaltet sie ein entwicklungsgeschichtliches Argument, das implizit vom Fortbestand der Gattung bis in die eigene Gegenwart ausgeht. Die Entwicklung von Auguste Rodin bis Robert Smithson, Eva Hesse oder Richard Serra schildert sie als zunehmende Verzeitlichung der Skulptur, die es nicht länger darauf anlege, Bewegung in einem einzigen verdichteten Augenblick darzustellen. Vielmehr vollziehe sie seit Rodin eine Prozessualisierung der Objektformation, die in Arbeiten wie Smithsons Spiral Jetty (1970) kulminiere, wo Entstehung, Vermittlung durch Fotodokumentation beziehungsweise Film und die intendierte Wahrnehmung durch den Betrachter ein Vorgehen bezeugten, das „besessen“ sei „von der Idee einer Passage durch Zeit und Raum“. Ihrem phänomenologischen, die raumzeitliche Erfahrung einzelner Werke untersuchenden Ansatz stellt Krauss in dem Aufsatz Sculpture in the Expanded Field (1979) ein ganz anderes Argument gegenüber. Nun geht sie davon aus, der Skulpturbegriff sei inzwischen so gedehnt, dass er seine Bestimmungskraft einbüße. Im Lichte der Gegenwart erweise sich Skulptur nicht als universelle, sondern als historisch determinierte Kategorie, deren innere Logik von der Denkmalsfunktion geprägt gewesen sei. Erneut wird Rodin als Scharnierfigur zwischen Tradition und Moderne thematisiert, jetzt aber nicht als Initialfigur für die Verzeitlichung der Skulptur, sondern als Zeuge des Leerlaufens der Memorialfunktion. Bei Rodin manifestiere sich erstmals jene Ortlosigkeit, welche die modernistische skulpturale Praxis präge. Am Ende des Modernismus in den 1950er Jahren bleibe nur noch die Negativität von Objekten, die vor einem Gebäude oder in der Landschaft stünden, aber weder Architektur noch Landschaft seien. Die entscheidende Wendung, die sich in den 1960er Jahren in Minimal Art und Land Art vollziehe, bestehe in der Reflexion auf diese Bezüge zwischen der Skulptur und ihrem nicht-skulpturalen Umfeld, die wieder zu positiven Setzungen führe. Unter dem „erweiterten Feld“, in welchem die Skulptur nun agiere, versteht Krauss ein Kraftfeld, das von der Opposition von Architektur und Landschaft als Ausprägung der Oppositionen von Kultur und Natur, Gebautem und Ungebautem bestimmt werde. Den Verknüpfungen der beiden Termini sowie ihrer jeweiligen Negationen ordnet sie vier Typen gegenwärtiger raumbezogener Praktiken zu: 1. „Orts-Konstruktion“ als Verbindung von Landschaft und Architektur (zum Beispiel Smithsons Partially Buried Woodshed, 1970); 2. „markierte Orte“ als Verbindung von Landschaft und Nicht-Landschaft (z.B. Smithsons Spiral Jetty); 3. „axiomatische Strukturen“ als Verbindung von Architektur und Nicht-Architektur (womit Werke gemeint sind, die Grundmerkmale architektonischer Erfahrung thematisieren, beispielsweise Richard Serra oder Bruce Nauman). Die vierte und letzte Kategorie schließlich bildet „Skulptur“ in jener bereits genannten doppelten Negativität als Nicht-Landschaft und Nicht-Architektur. Obschon der Aufsatztitel suggeriert, „Skulptur“ sei noch immer der Oberbegriff, betont Krauss die Gleichwertigkeit und Nicht-Subsummierbarkeit der vier Werkkategorien.
Die Originalität dieses Ansatzes liegt darin, künstlerische Praktiken nicht in Bezug auf ihren Mediengebrauch oder die Evokation bestimmter Erfahrungen zu definieren, sondern als „logische Operationen mit einer Reihe kultureller Begriffe, für die jedes Medium […] verwendet werden kann“. Das Agieren im „erweiterten Feld“, das Krauss mit dem Diskursfeld der Postmoderne gleichsetzt, lässt Kunstproduktion und theoretische Reflexion ineinander fließen. Liegt in erfahrungsästhetischer Perspektive die Antwort auf die Ortlosigkeit modernistischer Skulptur in jener Ortsspezifik skulpturaler Ansätze seit den 1960er Jahren, die Werk, Betrachter und Ort zur konkreten raumzeitlichen Situation zusammenschließt, gewinnen raumbezogene Arbeiten in Krauss’ Aufsatz ihren Ort durch Selbstverortung in einem diskursiven Feld zurück.

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Expanded Field / Rosalind Krauss als Druckversion (PDF mit Fn. 255 KB)

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