Rhetorik Wahrheit Text Linguistic turn

Wahrscheinlichkeit als Druckversion (PDF mit Abb. 8.639 KB)

spacer

Wahrscheinlichkeit. Zur Rhetorik der Kunst

in: Daidalos 64, Juni 1997 (Sondernummer „Rhetorik), S. 80-89.

Abschnitt I

Der „Dornröschenschlaf“, den Walter Jens die Rhetorik noch in den 1960er Jahren schlafen sah, ist unerwarteter Wachheit gewichen. Aus ganz unterschiedlichen Blickwinkeln rückte sie seither ins Zentrum der Aufmerksamkeit. Die Hermeneutik, der Dekonstruktivismus, die Philosophie in der Nachfolge des linguistic turn, strukturalistische Semiotik und moderne Textlinguistik, ja selbst die im Begriff der Kommunikation zentrierte Gesellschaftstheorie Habermas‘ oder Luhmanns – alle diese unterschiedlichen und teilweise unvereinbar scheinenden Theorien eint, daß sie von der Unmöglichkeit einer objektiven, rein denotierenden Sprache ausgehen und „Wahrheit“ als Ergebnis eines offenen Kommunikationsprozesses begreifen. „Wahrheit“ ist eine gesellschaftliche Übereinkunft auf Widerruf, die auf rhetorischem Wege zustande kommt, d.h. durch eine Sprache, die auf Überzeugung ausgerichtet ist. Ist jedes Wissen davon, was „wahr“ ist, das Ergebnis von Kommunikation, so wird zugleich die „Wirklichkeit“ zu einem einzigen „Text“. Die Rhetorik, verstanden als Theorie der kommunikativen Wirklichkeitsproduktion, wird zur Instanz, die diesen Text „lesbar“ machen soll. Das gilt nicht nur für den „Supertext“ der „Welt“, sondern ebenso für die einzelnen „Subtexte“ kultureller Objektivationen, also neben der Sprache für die Musik, den Film, die Medien, die Politik – und für die Kunst.
Mit der traditionellen Vorstellung von Rhetorik hat dieser maximalistische Rhetorikbegriff nur wenig zu tun. Diese war ein auf die Praxis des Redens ausgerichtetes Regelinventar, das in der griechischen und römischen Antike kodifiziert wurde und seine Wirkung bis weit in die Neuzeit hinein entfaltete. Als „Kunst des guten Redens“ schläft die Rhetorik noch immer ihren „Dornröschenschlaf“, aus dem sie wahrscheinlich auch nicht mehr erwachen dürfte. Als Quelle des Verständnisses sprachlicher Artikulation, d.h. als Mittel der Interpretation, ist sie gleichwohl unverzichtbar. So gibt es neben den eingangs genannten Theorien, die sich der Rhetorik in systematischer Hinsicht nähern, den historischen Zugang, der ihre Geschichte und ihren Einfluß in den verschiedenen Epochen und Bereichen verfolgt. Solches ist auch für die Kunst möglich und notwendig. Vor allem die Zeit zwischen 1400 und 1800 zeigt sich als Blüte der Rhetorik in der Kunst. Als die Renaissance eine Neuformulierung der Poetik, d.h. der Lehre von der künstlerischen Produktion unternahm, griff sie auf die antike Rhetorik als dem einzigen Regelwerk zurück, das eine systematische Ausdrucks- und Wirkungslehre bot. Die Ziele der Rede (informieren, berühren und erfreuen), ihre Elemente (Inhaltsfindung, Anordnung und Ausdruck), die verschiedenen Stilhöhen (bescheidener, mittlerer und erhabener Stil), die Auffassung von Angemessenheit und Geschmack als der Ausbalancierung von Natur und Kunst, usw.: All diese Unterscheidungen und Anweisungen wurden in die Poetik der Kunst hinübergenommen und entfalteten ihre unübersehbare Wirkung, etwa in der Hierarchie der Gattungen oder in der Lehre vom decorum, der Lehre von Anstand und Maß. Für den einflußreichen Traktat Albertis Über die Malerei (1436) läßt sich das bis in die einzelnen Formulierungen hinein verfolgen. Der Barock wiederum bringt mit seinem großen Interesse an Emblematik und Allegorie, die beide Zwischenformen von Sprache und Bild sind, sowie am Wirkungsziel des Berührens (movere) die Rhetorisierung der Kunst zu einem Höhepunkt, der sich z.B. in Rubens‘ Zyklus für Maria de‘ Medici (1622/25) manifestiert. Solche Werke lassen sich ohne Kenntnis der antiken rhetorischen Lehre nicht angemessen verstehen. In diesem Feld hat die Methode der Ikonologie Wichtiges geleistet. Doch mit der Ablösung der Regelpoetik durch die philosophische Ästhetik sowie mit dem Aufkommen der neuen künstlerischen Leitkategorien des Genies und der Originalität verblaßt gegen 1800 die Wirkmacht der Rhetorik. Die nach Autonomie strebende Kunst der Moderne sucht nicht nur jede Außenregelung abzuwerfen, sondern sie verschärft außerdem den Gegensatz von Bild und Wort, der das Ende der allegorisierenden Kunst zur Folge hat. Die Moderne erweist sich als geradezu anti-rhetorische Epoche. Daß die Rhetorik gerade in den 60er Jahren aus dem Vergessen geholt wird, fällt nicht zufällig mit dem Beginn der postmodernen Modernekritik zusammen. Wenn also die Rede vom Rhetorischen der Kunst nicht nur für die Zeit vor 1800, sondern auch für die Kunst der Moderne begründet sein will, dann scheinen wir gezwungen zu sein, den traditionellen Begriff der Rhetorik zu verlassen und uns der neuen, maximalistischen Definition zuzuwenden, für die der ausdrückliche Bezug eines Kunstwerks auf bestimmte rhetorische Regeln keine Bedingung darstellt, um es als rhetorisch zu begreifen.

Punkt Abschnitt I
Pfeil Abschnitt II
Abschnitt III
Abschnitt IV
Abschnitt V
Abschnitt VI
spacer
Wahrscheinlichkeit als Druckversion (PDF mit Abb. 8.639 KB)

81 Antworten auf „Rhetorik Wahrheit Text Linguistic turn“

  1. I’ll right away grasp your rss feed as I can’t in finding your email
    subscription hyperlink or newsletter service. Do
    you have any? Please permit me understand in order that I may just subscribe.

    Thanks.

  2. Its like you learn my mind! You appear to know a lot approximately this, such as you wrote the e
    book in it or something. I feel that you just can do with some percent to drive the message home a little bit, but other than that,
    that is fantastic blog. A great read. I will definitely be back.

  3. Hey there, I think your site might be having
    browser compatibility issues. When I look at your blog in Ie, it looks fine
    but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping.
    I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that,
    excellent blog!

  4. I think this is one of the most important info
    for me. And i’m glad reading your article. But wanna remark
    on few general things, The site style is ideal, the articles is really nice
    : D. Good job, cheers

  5. Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wished to
    say that I’ve truly loved browsing your blog posts.
    After all I’ll be subscribing on your feed and I’m hoping you write once more soon!

  6. Hi there I am so glad I found your site, I really found you by
    mistake, while I was looking on Bing for something
    else, Anyways I am here now and would just like to say thanks for a incredible
    post and a all round interesting blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to
    go through it all at the minute but I have book-marked
    it and also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to
    read much more, Please do keep up the superb job.

  7. Nice blog right here! Also your site a lot up fast!
    What web host are you the use of? Can I am getting your associate hyperlink
    on your host? I desire my web site loaded up as fast as
    yours lol

  8. Magnificent goods from you, man. I’ve take into accout your stuff prior to and you
    are just too wonderful. I actually like what you’ve
    obtained here, certainly like what you are stating and the best way
    during which you assert it. You’re making it enjoyable and
    you continue to care for to keep it sensible. I can’t wait to read far more from you.
    That is actually a great site.

  9. You’re so interesting! I do not suppose I have read through a single thing like this
    before. So nice to find somebody with a few genuine thoughts on this issue.
    Really.. many thanks for starting this up. This web site is something that’s needed on the web, someone with a bit of originality!

  10. When I initially commented I clicked the „Notify me when new comments are added“ checkbox and now each time
    a comment is added I get three e-mails with the same comment.
    Is there any way you can remove people from that service?

    Thanks!

  11. Greetings from California! I’m bored to death at work so I decided to browse your blog on my
    iphone during lunch break. I really like the knowledge you provide here and can’t wait to take a look when I get home.

    I’m surprised at how quick your blog loaded on my
    mobile .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyways, excellent
    site!

  12. You really make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this matter to be really something that I think I would never understand.
    It seems too complicated and very broad for me. I’m looking forward for your next post, I’ll try
    to get the hang of it!

  13. Nice post. I learn something totally new and challenging on blogs
    I stumbleupon everyday. It will always be useful to read through content from other writers and
    use a little something from other sites.

  14. Hey there are using WordPress for your blog platform?
    I’m new to the blog world but I’m trying to get started
    and set up my own. Do you need any coding expertise to make your own blog?
    Any help would be greatly appreciated!

  15. Great blog you have here but I was curious if you knew of any discussion boards
    that cover the same topics talked about in this article?
    I’d really love to be a part of online community where I can get comments from other experienced
    people that share the same interest. If you have
    any suggestions, please let me know. Many thanks!

  16. Hi! I could have sworn I’ve been to this site
    before but after checking through some of the post
    I realized it’s new to me. Nonetheless, I’m definitely glad I found it and I’ll be
    bookmarking and checking back frequently!

  17. Amazing blog! Is your theme custom made or did you
    download it from somewhere? A theme like yours with a few simple adjustements
    would really make my blog stand out. Please
    let me know where you got your design. Thanks

  18. Link exchange is nothing else but it is just placing the other person’s blog link
    on your page at proper place and other person will also
    do similar in support of you.

  19. Fantastic site. Plenty of useful information here.
    I am sending it to several buddies ans also sharing in delicious.
    And obviously, thanks in your effort!

  20. Greetings! Very useful advice in this particular article!
    It is the little changes that make the most important changes.

    Many thanks for sharing!

  21. Oh my goodness! Impressive article dude! Thank you, However I am experiencing troubles with your RSS.

    I don’t understand the reason why I am unable to subscribe to
    it. Is there anybody else having identical RSS problems?
    Anybody who knows the solution will you kindly respond?
    Thanks!!

  22. Hello there, just became alert to your blog through Google,
    and found that it’s truly informative. I’m gonna watch out for brussels.
    I’ll be grateful if you continue this in future. Many people will
    be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

  23. Wonderful article! This is the kind of information that are
    supposed to be shared around the web. Disgrace on the seek engines for no longer positioning this put up
    higher! Come on over and discuss with my web site .
    Thanks =)

  24. Do you mind if I quote a couple of your articles as long as I
    provide credit and sources back to your website?
    My blog is in the very same area of interest as yours and my users would really benefit from a
    lot of the information you present here. Please let me know if this alright with you.

    Thanks!

  25. I love what you guys tend to be up too. This kind of clever work and exposure!
    Keep up the fantastic works guys I’ve included you guys to my personal
    blogroll.

  26. Somebody necessarily assist to make seriously articles I’d state.
    This is the first time I frequented your website
    page and up to now? I surprised with the research you designed to create this actual publish incredible.
    Magnificent job!

    Also visit my web-site – EdwinDBejcek

  27. Sweet blog! I found it while searching on Yahoo News.
    Do you have any suggestions on how to get
    listed in Yahoo News? I’ve been trying for a while but I never seem to get there!
    Many thanks

  28. I’m not that much of a internet reader to be honest but your blogs really nice,
    keep it up! I’ll go ahead and bookmark your website to come back down the road.

    Many thanks

  29. Spot on with this write-up, I truly feel this amazing site needs far more attention. I’ll probably be returning to see more, thanks for
    the information!

  30. I’ve been browsing online more than three hours as of late, but I by no means discovered any fascinating article like yours.
    It is pretty price sufficient for me. In my opinion, if all webmasters
    and bloggers made just right content as you probably did, the internet will be
    much more helpful than ever before.

  31. My programmer is trying to convince me to move
    to .net from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses.
    But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using Movable-type on several websites for about
    a year and am anxious about switching to another
    platform. I have heard good things about blogengine.net.

    Is there a way I can import all my wordpress content into
    it? Any help would be really appreciated!

  32. I enjoy looking through an article that can make men and women think.
    Also, thanks for permitting me to comment!

  33. Greetings I am so delighted I found your blog page, I really found you by mistake, while I
    was browsing on Digg for something else, Regardless I am here now and would just like to say thank you
    for a incredible post and a all round entertaining blog (I also
    love the theme/design), I don’t have time to go through it all at the moment but I
    have saved it and also included your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be
    back to read more, Please do keep up the excellent jo.

  34. I’m really loving the theme/design of your web site.
    Do you ever run into any internet browser compatibility issues?

    A few of my blog readers have complained about my site not working correctly
    in Explorer but looks great in Firefox. Do you have any ideas to help fix this issue?

  35. you’re actually a good webmaster. The website
    loading pace is incredible. It seems that you are doing any unique trick.
    Furthermore, The contents are masterpiece. you’ve done a fantastic task in this matter!

  36. An impressive share! I have just forwarded this onto a friend who has been doing a little homework on this.
    And he in fact bought me dinner because I discovered it for him…
    lol. So let me reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!!
    But yeah, thanks for spending the time to talk about this topic here on your internet
    site.

  37. I have learn some excellent stuff here. Definitely worth bookmarking
    for revisiting. I wonder how so much effort you set to create any such fantastic informative site.

  38. Do you mind if I quote a couple of your articles as long as I provide credit and sources back to your site?
    My blog site is in the exact same niche as yours and my
    visitors would really benefit from some of the information you present here.
    Please let me know if this ok with you. Cheers!

  39. I believe what you published made a great deal
    of sense. But, what about this? what if you typed a catchier title?
    I ain’t suggesting your content is not good., but suppose you added a
    post title that makes people want more? I mean Rhetorik Wahrheit Text Linguistic turn –
    Michael Lüthy Archiv is a little vanilla. You might look at Yahoo’s front page and watch how they write article titles to get viewers to open the links.
    You might add a video or a related picture or two to grab people interested about
    what you’ve written. Just my opinion, it would make your blog a little livelier.

  40. Thank you a bunch for sharing this with all people you
    actually realize what you are speaking approximately! Bookmarked.
    Please additionally seek advice from my website =). We may have a link alternate contract between us

  41. It is the best time to make some plans for the future and it’s
    time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you few interesting things or advice.
    Perhaps you can write next articles referring to this article.
    I wish to read more things about it!

  42. Link exchange is nothing else however it is only placing
    the other person’s web site link on your page at suitable place and other
    person will also do similar for you.

  43. Wonderful items from you, man. I’ve take into
    account your stuff prior to and you’re just too excellent.
    I really like what you have got right here, certainly like
    what you are stating and the way in which during which you assert it.
    You are making it enjoyable and you still care for to stay it wise.
    I can’t wait to learn far more from you. This is actually a great site.

  44. When I initially commented I clicked the „Notify me when new comments are added“ checkbox and
    now each time a comment is added I get three e-mails with the
    same comment. Is there any way you can remove people from that service?

    Many thanks!

  45. Your style is so unique in comparison to other folks I have read
    stuff from. Thank you for posting when you’ve got the opportunity, Guess I’ll
    just book mark this web site.

  46. Wonderful article! This is the type of information that are meant to be shared across the net.
    Disgrace on the search engines for no longer positioning this post upper!
    Come on over and discuss with my site . Thank you =)

Schreibe einen Kommentar

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht.