Edouard Manet Baudelaire Benjamin Salon Subjektivität

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Bild und Blick in Manets Malerei

Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag 2003.

Einleitung, Abschnitt V

Im ‚Blickwechsel‘ zwischen Bild und Betrachter verweben sich indessen Intimität und Anonymität. Die dem Betrachter zugekehrten Gesichter bleiben inselhaft, die Blicke scheinen gleichermaßen aus dem Nichts zu kommen und ins Nichts zu gehen. Wer ist ihr Adressat? Alle und niemand zugleich. Es sei die „Menge“, so Walter Benjamin in seinem Aufsatz über Charles Baudelaire, die im 19. Jahrhundert zum Gegenstand und Publikum der Kunst werde. Doch die Menge, so heißt es dort weiter, sei eine ambivalente Textur. Ihre Erfahrung werde immer wieder durch unvermittelte, schockartige Begegnungen ‚punktiert‘, deren Protagonisten sich aber fremd blieben und auch gleich wieder verlören. Baudelaire hat diesen Zusammenprall von Intimität und Anonymität, Getroffensein und Entzug im berühmten Gedicht an eine „Passantin“ beschrieben: „Ein Blitz … und dann die Nacht!“
Der offizielle Salon, in dem Manet trotz häufiger Zurückweisung durch die Jury auszustellen beharrte, bildete mit dem auch noch in den 1860er und 1870er Jahren massiven Publikumsandrang und der nach wie vor großen sozialen Bandbreite an Besuchern eine Art Mikrokosmos der ‚Stadt der Menge‘, die nach der Logik der Bühne, der Kulisse und des Spektakels organisiert war. In diesem Rahmen, in dem das einzelne Bild unter den Tausenden von Exponaten – im Salon von 1880 stellten 5 184 Künstler und 4 267 Maler aus – unterzugehen drohte, provozierten Manets Bilder solche Baudelaireschen ‚Begegnungen‘ durch einen Blick, der den Salonflaneur unvermittelt traf und von der Menge der Besucher für einen Augenblick isolierte. Manets Bilder fielen durch den forcierten Außenbezug aus jedem Zusammenhang und zerrissen die ästhetische Textur der flächendeckend Rahmen an Rahmen gehängten Bilder. Es wurde zur stehenden Wendung der Salonkritiker, davon zu sprechen, Manets Bilder schlügen „ein Loch in die Wand“. Gleichwohl paarte sich auch hier die ‚Begegnung‘ mit einem Entzug, nicht nur weil es bloß ein Bild war, von dessen Blick man erfaßt wurde, sondern weil der Betrachter erkennen mußte, daß dieser Blick an ihm vorbei- oder durch ihn hindurchging, er folglich nicht der ‚Gemeinte‘ war. Die beiden Bedeutungen von ‚cela me regarde‘ – ‚es schaut mich an‘ und ‚es geht mich an‘ – traten in irritierender Weise auseinander.
Auf dem schwankenden Boden einer Zeit, in der das Problem der Kommunikation sich auf allen Ebenen stellte, schuf Manet eine Malerei ‚von Angesicht zu Angesicht‘, die weniger ein Modell der Welt entwarf als vielmehr ein Modell der – prekären, instabilen und immer nur punktuellen – Beziehung zur Welt. Sie kommunizierte weniger bestimmte Inhalte, sondern Subjektivität selbst, sofern man unter Subjektivität die Vermittlung von Selbst und Welt versteht.

Bild und Blick im Zeichen künstlerischer Autonomie
Abschnitt II
Abschnitt III
Abschnitt IV
punkt Abschnitt V
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