Ästhetische Lebendigkeit Barnett Newman Erfahrung Oszillation Aspektwechsel

Ästhetische Lebendigkeit moderner Kunst-Dinge als Druckversion (PDF mit Abb. u. Fn. 4.969 KB)

Zur ästhetischen Lebendigkeit moderner Kunst-Dinge

in: The challenge of the object: 33rd congress of the International Committee of the History of Art/Die Herausforderung des Objekts: 33. Internationaler Kunsthistoriker-Kongress, Germanisches Nationalmuseum Nürnberg, 15.-20. Juli 2012, hrsg. von Georg Ulrich Großmann und Petra Krutisch, Nürnberg 2013

Kapitel 2: Prolegomena zu einer modernen Fassung ästhetischer Lebendigkeit

Barnett Newman begriff seine Gemälde ausdrücklich nicht als Mimesis: „These paintings“, so formuliert er es in dem Statement, das seine erste Einzelausstellung 1950 begleitete, „are not ‚abstractions‘, nor do they depict some ‚pure‘ idea. They are specific and separate embodiments of feeling, to be experienced, each picture for itself.“

Wie als eine Erinnerung an den älteren Topos ästhetischer Lebendigkeit taucht auch hier der Begriff der ‚Verkörperung‘ (‚embodiment‘) auf. Doch er bezieht sich diesmal nicht auf etwas, das im Gemälde dargestellt wäre, sondern auf Gefühle, von denen der Betrachter erfasst werden soll. Folglich ist auch in Newmans Statement von Verlebendigung die Rede, und zwar sowohl von derjenigen des Bildobjekts qua Verkörperung eines Gefühls als auch von derjenigen des Betrachters, wenn sich dieses Gefühl qua Bilderfahrung auf ihn überträgt.

Newmans Bildtitel, beispielsweise „Genesis – The Break“, „Day One“ oder „Be (The Resurrection)“, zeigen, dass seine Malerei prominent um die Themen des Anfänglichen, des Aufbrechens oder des Umschlags ins Sein kreiste. Allerdings war er solange mit den Ergebnissen unzufrieden, als er versuchte, diese Themen im weitesten Sinne mimetisch darzustellen. Nach seinem eigenen Verständnis gelang ihm mit „Onement, I“ von 1948 der entscheidende Durchbruch, der darin bestand, solche Themen nicht mehr darzustellen, sondern sie dem Betrachter als Erfahrung zugänglich zu machen. Im Sinne eines Abgebildeten enthält „Onement, I“ nichts und ist doch nicht leer. Denn auf ihm ist etwas: ein Abklebband, und auf diesem Abklebband wiederum ein orangeroter, ausfransender Farbstreifen; beide ziehen sich über die gesamte Vertikale des Bildes, das Band sogar um die obere und untere Bildkante herum. Der Effekt dieses Verfahrens besteht darin, dass die Spaltung in zwei vertikale Hälften – als jenes Ereignis, das einen Anfang setzt – nicht im Bild liegt, sondern sich als eine Spaltung des Bildes zeigt. Was das Bild bedeutet, ist das, was mit ihm geschieht.

In den Arbeiten, die diesem initialen Bild folgten, verzichtete Newman auf derlei Applikationen und realisierte jenes ‚embodiment of feeling‘ alleine im Medium flach aufgetragener, häufig weitestgehend untexturierter Farbe. Die Bildformate wachsen erheblich an und werden mitunter wandgleich, sollen aber dennoch, so Newmans Intention, aus intimer Nähe betrachtet werden. Was sich dem Betrachter aus solcher Nahdistanz darbietet, beispielsweise bei dem riesigen Bild „Vir Heroicus Sublimis“ von 1950/51, ist eine Abfolge vertikal präzise begrenzter Farbzonen, deren ästhetische Pointe in ihrer Polyvalenz liegt. Die Detail-Aufnahme – die etwa einen Zehntel der beinahe fünfeinhalb Meter breiten Leinwand wiedergibt – zeigt etwas, das sich auf mindestens drei Weisen auffassen lässt: a) als ein gespaltenes Rot, hinter dem aufgrund der Spaltung ein Braun sichtbar wird, b) als ein durchlaufendes Rot, vor dem sich ein brauner Streifen befindet, und c) als eine strikt laterale Abfolge aneinandergrenzender Streifen von Rot, Braun und Rot.

Die ästhetische Verlebendigung liegt hier folglich darin, eine objektiv und subjektiv nicht stillzustellende Oszillation zwischen der Fläche des Bildes und einem Raum entstehen zu lassen, den man in seiner eigentümlichen Dimensionslosigkeit mit Greenberg als einen „totalen“ bezeichnen könnte. Auf einer noch grundsätzlicheren Ebene liegt die Verlebendigung darin, dass die bloße Abfolge von Farbflächen überhaupt als ein Bild erfahrbar wird, das heißt als etwas, das über seine Faktizität hinaus etwas zeigt. Das Anfängliche, als Newmans Kardinalthema, ist hier die Genese als Bild.

Die ästhetische Lebendigkeit dieses Typs basiert folglich auf der Erfahrung, dass das gesehene Objekt sich immer wieder unter anderen Aspekten zeigt, bald als materiell, bald als immateriell, bald als Fläche, bald hingegen als dimensionslose Tiefe, sowie auf einer konkreteren Ebene als immer wieder abweichend gedeutetes räumliches Dispositiv unterschiedlicher Farbstreifen. Diese Erfahrung wechselnder Aspekte, unter denen wir den Gegenstand auffassen, wird dadurch dramatisiert, dass die einzelnen Aspekte miteinander unverträglich sind, so wie es für Fläche versus Tiefe, materiell versus immateriell oder davor versus dahinter gilt. Die Erfahrung des Aspektwechsels ist überdies insofern paradox, als sie mit der Einsicht einhergeht, dass sich am Objekt jeweils materiell nichts ändert.

Erläutert man ästhetische Lebendigkeit mit einer solchen Aspektwechsel-Dynamik, verortet man sie weder allein im ‚beseelten‘ Kunstwerk wie in der älteren Kunsttheorie noch allein im Subjekt, das durch die Betrachtung des Schönen ‚belebt‘ wird, so wie es die Kantische Ästhetik auffasst und wie es Winckelmann anhand der Erfahrung des „Apolls von Belvedere“ beschreibt. Der Begriff des Aspektwechsels meint ebenso ein neues Sehen auf der Seite des Subjekts als auch ein anderes Erscheinen des Objekts. Die Dynamik, die wir erfahren, erfasst Subjekt und Objekt der Wahrnehmung gleichermaßen, und ohne dass sich eine klare Ursache-Wirkung-Relation bestimmen ließe. Sie verdankt sich ebenso sehr dem Vermögen des Wahrnehmenden – seiner ästhetischen Sensibilität, aber auch seiner Geläufigkeit im Umgang mit Kunst – wie den je besonderen Gegebenheiten des Kunstwerks, hier etwa den formalen und maltechnischen Eigenarten von Newmans Gemälden.

Als paradoxes Zugleich von neuer und unveränderter Wahrnehmung bleibt die ‚Belebung‘ des Kunstwerks immanent: Sie transzendiert weder das Objekt noch die konkrete Wahrnehmungssituation. Diese Neubestimmung ästhetischer Lebendigkeit lässt sich folglich mit dem augenfälligen Hang der modernen Kunst zu Faktizismus und Dinglichkeit zusammenzudenken, die auch Newmans Malerei aufweist. Während der ältere Lebendigkeitstopos seine Pointe darin hat, die Darstellung nicht das sein zu lassen, was sie eigentlich ist, nämlich ein flaches Bild oder ein kalter Stein, sondern vielmehr die Differenz von dargestelltem Gegenstand und darstellendem Medium imaginär zu tilgen, kehrt die moderne Kunst ihre Materialität und Medialität so deutlich hervor, dass nicht allein die Tilgung der Differenz unmöglich wird, sondern vor allem offensichtlich wird, dass eine so geartete Selbsttransfiguration des Kunstwerks gar nicht beabsichtigt ist. War das klassische Kunstwerk sozusagen Fleisch vom Fleisch des Lebendigen und zugleich nicht wie Fleisch vom Fleisch des Lebendigen, ist das moderne Kunstwerk ein Ding unter Dingen und zugleich nicht wie ein Ding unter Dingen. Wenn wir an solchen Ding-Werken der Moderne die Erfahrung einer Lebendigkeit des Gegenstands machen, sehen wir nicht im Kunstwerk über das Kunstwerk hinaus, sondern dieses erscheint uns in je unterschiedlicher, auch kontradiktorischer Weise, ohne dass dies seine Faktizität und Dinglichkeit transzendierte. Die ästhetische Lebendigkeit moderner Kunstobjekte, sofern man sie nach der hier skizzierten Aspektwechsel-Logik auffasst, aktualisiert den alten Topos ästhetischer Lebendigkeit im Zeichen der Immanenz: Wir sehen im Kunstwerk nichts anderes als es selbst, sondern sehen stets dasselbe, aber je anders.

Einleitung
Kapitel 1: Der ältere Topos ästhetischer Lebendigkeit
Ästhetische Lebendigkeit moderner Kunst-Dinge Kapitel 2: Prolegomena zu einer modernen Fassung ästhetischer Lebendigkeit
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Ästhetische Lebendigkeit moderner Kunst-Dinge als Druckversion (PDF mit Abb. u. Fn. 4.969 KB)

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