Ästhetische Erfahrung Kunst Wahrnehmung Betrachter

Das Medium der ästhetischen Erfahrung als Druckversion (PDF mit Abb. u. Fn. 1.171 KB)

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Das Medium der ästhetischen Erfahrung
Wittgensteins Aspektbegriff, exemplifiziert an Pollocks Malerei

in: Imaginäre Medialität – Immaterielle Medien, hrsg. von Gertrud Koch, Kirsten Maar und Fiona McGovern, München 2012, S. 125-142.

Einleitung

Stellen ästhetische Theorien den Erfahrungsbegriff in den Mittelpunkt, geht es ihnen um das Verhältnis zwischen dem künstlerischen Gegenstand und der Wahrnehmung des Betrachters. Ich schlage vor, die entscheidende Frage, wie genau dieses Verhältnis zu bestimmen sei, im Rückgriff auf Ludwig Wittgensteins Begriff des Aspekts zu beantworten. Nach Wittgenstein ist der Begriff des Aspekts doppeldeutig. Er ist das, was unter bestimmten Bedingungen im Kunstwerk aufleuchtet, und zugleich das, was der Betrachter unter bestimmten Bedingungen am Kunstwerk bemerkt. Weder allein eine Eigenschaft des Gegenstands noch allein eine Imaginationsleistung des Betrachters, ist er ein Zwischen, das sich dem produktiven Zusammenspiel beider verdankt. Damit, so möchte ich zeigen, erlaubt Wittgensteins Aspektbegriff nicht nur zu erfassen, auf welche Weise das Objekt und das Subjekt der ästhetischen Erfahrung miteinander vermittelt werden, sondern zugleich auch zu erkennen, inwiefern die Besonderheit der ästhetischen Subjekte und Objekte in diesem Vermittlungsgeschehen relevant wird. Die Art und Weise, wie sich Wittgensteins Erläuterungen nicht auf die Vollzüge im Subjekt beschränken, sondern die Jeweiligkeit der Erfahrung als abhängig von der Jeweiligkeit ästhetischer Objekte betonen, gibt seinem Ansatz innerhalb der Theorien ästhetischer Erfahrung ein eigenständiges Profil. Dieses Profil ist gerade aus der Perspektive der Kunstwissenschaft interessant, geht es dieser doch, entschieden deutlicher als der Philosophie, um die Besonderheit der ästhetischen Objekte, die sich, genau besehen, als eine doppelte Besonderheit erweist: diejenige der Kunst gegenüber anderen ästhetischen Objekten und diejenige eines bestimmten Kunstwerks gegenüber anderen Kunstwerken.
Bevor ich dies genauer ausführe, wende ich mich jedoch einem Beispiel aus der Kunst zu, an dem ich Wittgensteins Aspektbegriff nachfolgend exemplifizieren werde. Es handelt sich um Jackson Pollocks Number 32 aus dem Jahr 1950, das heute in der Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen in Düsseldorf hängt (Abb. 1 und 2). Um möglichst umstandslos zu jenen Merkmalen von Pollocks Gemälde zu gelangen, die für meinen Zusammenhang relevant sind, ziehe ich die berühmt gewordene, ebenso knappe wie präzise Analyse von Number 32 heran, die Walter Kambartel 1970 in der Reihe Werkmonographien zur bildenden Kunst des Reclam Verlags veröffentlichte.

Punkt Manet Velazquez Einleitung
Manet Velazquez Kapitel I: Pollock – nach Kambartel
Kapitel II: Wittgensteins Aspektbegriff
Kapitel III: Aspektwechsel und Kunst
Kapitel IV: „Passen“
Kapitel V: Erfahrung und Interpretation
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Das Medium der ästhetischen Erfahrung als Druckversion (PDF mit Abb. u. Fn. 1.171 KB)

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